Liberalisering of radicalisering?
I came from an opinion piece that I 2007 a third year student at the Christian University Ede wrote. Although the last four years I have gained more experience in writing articles, is the essence of the article is still relevant today.
Islamologists are divided over the future of Islam. The concepts of liberalization and radicalization are diametrically opposed in this debate. Can these movements within Islam will develop side by side? And which of the two will be the future of Islam determine the most?
Many Islamologists are guilty of intimidation. They paint on Islam as an aggressive and intolerant monster that will swallow the democratic principles. Zelfs de bekende emeritus professor Bernard Lewis van Princeton University waarschuwt dat Europa door moslims overgenomen wordt en dat de islam spoedig de dominerende kracht in Europa zal zijn (Lewis 2007). The words of Lewis and other Islamologists miss their effect is not.
Europe seems under the spell of fear of Islam. European Muslims are viewed with suspicion and closely monitored. Every expression of radical Muslim groups is a media hype. Europe looks after the Cold War in Islam to have found a new enemy.
Meanwhile, the Europeans in an identity crisis ended. They are lost in their quest for a European identity, because different cultures have found it difficult to bind together the European Union. In addition, the EU thwarted by the postmodernist critical thinking citizens. While the EU appears to benefit from a common enemy, seems the fight against terrorism will only create divisions within Europe.
Is Islam really a threat to democracy? Who throws a look in the Quran is likely to be deterred by the inflammatory language. Elsevier said the Koran is a disturbing book and took several passages that go against our democratic principles (List 2005). The fearful reactions to the terrorist attacks are understandable, but perhaps we would be more to the underlying causes of terrorism need to look. We would receive incomplete and biased in. The radical Muslims shout the loudest and get therefore the most attention. In addition, the media mostly interested in negative news. “If it bleeds, it leads. "Our lack of knowledge about Islam, our future must go and break up. The Koran can be interpreted in different ways. Why are we not well aware of the differences in interpretations of the Koran?
Zie squad "Koran, a message of peace or hate?”
The headline messages about the growing radicalization among Muslims, in our country. Those who follow the news will have noticed that the influence of radical Muslims in recent years has increased. With the advent of the Internet is the doctrine of radical Muslims spread rapidly. In addition there are many lectures and mosques taken over by Muslim extremists.
The Islamic influence in Europe is increasing rapidly. Radical Muslims have strong positions within the Muslim world, think of countries like Iran and Saudi Arabia. In many other countries such as Egypt and Pakistan will also strongly influence their. In this way the radicals affect the way the Muslim world reacts to what is happening in Europe. Besides terrorism affects Europe. The Europeans seem afraid and cautious so as to avoid provocation. The attacks in Madrid, for example, to a large extent determined the election in Spain. At the same time a lot of Muslims emigrating to Europe. The Muslims are the fastest growing segment of the European population. These immigrants will in future often go together in political parties together and working relationships. Another reason for the increasing influence of the Muslims is the political correctness of Europe. Because we are guilty and self-critical, , we often blame ourselves. This political correctness is accompanied by anxiety, because we know depends on oil. We are afraid of the power resources of Muslims.
Radical Muslims see that Islam is influenced by the secular West. Are the acts of terror a final attempt to the secularization of Islam to stop? Within Islam gives science a new role. There are gradually more and more discussions about the content of Islam started. Furthermore, critical books written about the history and interpretation of the Koran. Like the radical Muslims Islam preserve for a period of Enlightenment as Christian Europe has known? Or are they jealous of the prosperity of the West? The heyday of the Arab nation is indeed centuries past.
See under "Flowering and decline of Islamic civilization"
People like Hirsi Ali fight for Enlightenment in Islam. Although Hirsi Ali focuses exclusively on the role of women in Islam, she tries her own way to reform Islam. Another ex-Muslim has been publishing 1995 critical books about the history of Islam and the interpretation of the Koran under the pseudonym Ibn Warraq. There are more Muslims who dare to express substantive criticism of Islam and the fulfillment of Allah's commandments.
Grist to the mill of Muslim extremists. With powerful language they try to win over liberal Muslims. With flattering words they play in on the discontent of Muslims about the corrupt and unjust regimes, failure to reform and fear of Western domination. The images of Iraq are still many Muslims in mind the cartoon riots and since there is an anti-western ambience created.
Liberalisering binnen de islam
But there is other news to report. The radicalization is recognized by the Muslim community. In the Netherlands, municipalities tackle harder and radical imams are increasingly speaking in Dutch, so they can voice an opposing. Many Muslims distance themselves publicly from the terrorist actions of their Muslim brothers. In 2004 brought the SCP (SCP, 2004) het report Muslim in Nederland from. Which states that Dutch Muslim youth are less orthodox and inclined to their faith is a personal interpretation.
In 2004 chose the Malaysian people flock to the progressive Muslim party of current Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi. "Progressive Islam is the key", Badawi said after the election result was known. Malaysia shows that progress and a moderate form of Islam go together and is therefore also an inspiring example for other Islamic countries. Ook Pakistan, Indonesia and Turkey are classified as moderate and progressive.
Islam in Europe, America and even in the Middle East in full swing. Halfway through the 19and century the first renewal movements founded. The Egyptian Nawal El Saadawi is a major advocate of women workers in the Middle East. The Muslim feminism is strong. The Muslim Tariq Ramadan has a strong opinion about the integration of Muslims into Western societies and is hearing from many Arab youths in France, Belgium, England and Netherlands. The American-Iranian scholar Reza Aslan, in his book No god but God that the message of Muhammad was revolutionary for its time, that Islam is not rigid but can be applied. Lion: ” What worked ten centuries ago, is not working anymore. Who says that claims that Islam is dead and no longer with us to grow. But for the majority of us, Islam is a living, breathable faith.”
Jawdat Said, born in 1931 to Syria, is already more than forty years working on a non-violent Islam to propagate. He gets little attention in the West, but in the Arab world, his books are widely read and discussed. Ali Abderraziq (1888-1966), was professor of theology at Al-Azhar University (Cairo) and judge at the Tribunal of Islamic Mansourah. His main work Islam and the foundations of power caused a major change in the Islamic thought of the twentieth century. His vision has led to more and more Muslims the separation between religion and politics recognize.
There are many more known as progressive Muslims who are committed to reforming Islam. Another factor of importance is mentioned in an article by sociology professor Charles Kurzman (Kurzman, 1999). He believes that Islamic regimes as political model failure. He cites Iran that should have been the great example for Muslim countries. After the Iranian Revolution 1979 was there for the first time a true Islamic society constructed, maar deze kon de hooggespannen verwachtingen van moslims niet waarmaken. De steun onder Iraniërs voor het regime neemt steeds verder af en het percentage Iraanse moslims dat een negatief beeld van de VS heeft is sinds 2001 decreased from 63 to 52 percent (Gallup, 2006).
Eufraat en Tigris
Within Islam and develop the radical liberal movement developed separately. They are two extremes and calls as often as one movement a counter-movement. It is not yet clear which flow will take the upper hand. Europe can play an important role in. If the liberal Turkey joins the European Union, that the mind can improve relations between East and West. The progressive Muslim states can play an exemplary turd. The problem is that progressive states are more attracted to the West, which they dispose of other Islamic countries. They will have their ties with the Islamic society should strengthen as a mediating role to play.
The modernization of Islam can be done in two ways: by confrontation or by reform from within. Confrontation seems now no longer the best option because it mainly came from ex-Muslims and Islam fierce fighters. Can someone who is not Muslim, Islam is more reform? The reform of Islam will must come from within.
There are many factors that are important in the development of Islam. The development of Islam is influenced by many factors. I believe that the West has an important influence factor and that the Western world a more positive role to be. Research shows that Muslims and Westerners have a very negative image of each other (The Pew Global Attitudes Project, 2006). In some Muslim countries, nearly three quarters of the Muslims associate the West with terms such as violent, arrogant, selfish, inhalig s immoreel. European Muslims have a more positive image of the West. Conversely, Westerners have slightly less negative about Muslims, maar toch vindt een derde tot de helft van de Europeanen van moslims dat ze gewelddadig en arrogant zijn. The conclusion of the report is that Muslims and Westerners are very negative about each other, but that there are large differences between countries. Remarkably, the Muslims in Turkey are most negative about the West.
The research proves that Muslims and "Westerners" a distorted image of each other. In. Shadid (professor in the field of intercultural communication) in a recent article outlines how the Western media contribute to the stigmatization of Muslims and Islam (Shadid, 2005).
According to Shadid shoot the deficit in their Western media reporting on Muslims and immigrants in general. The main shortcomings are in his view that Islam is too simplistic and detached is presented and that society is divided into 'us' and 'them'. In addition, the groups in question problematized and stigmatized. They can participate enough in the media and therefore also lacks their vision in the media.
Due to the stigmatization of Muslims the relationship negatively affects. Through this communication noise get 'Westerners' a colored image of Muslims and incomplete, leading to a stereotype of Muslims formed by prejudices.
That the dialogue between Muslim countries and the West but has difficulty getting started is clear. The causes are diverse, but returned to lead to structural problems in the communication back and forth. In my article I want to especially identify points which Europe can work. Given the distribution of power in world politics it is not surprising if we take the lead in the dialogue to bring. Europe must show responsibility therein.
Werken aan een open dialoog
For effective communication between content and the message must be clear, but it must also involve mutual trust within a relationship of equality. In order to dialogue with Muslims to come, have some structural problems are addressed:
- Communication about Muslims must be improved.
- Muslim countries should be more involved in world politics.
- Liberal Muslims initiatives should be supported.
Communicatie over moslims verbeteren
In order to improve communication about Muslims, Shadid, according to the structure of the media to be changed. In his article he mentions a number of common solutions. Journalists should be given a course in intercultural communication. There should be more government subsidy which Muslims are able to give information. Een ander voorstel is om een onafhankelijke monitoringsorganisatie op te richten die de objectiviteit van de media gaat controleren. The main point however Shadid mentions is that the journalism courses must be provided with a multicultural dimension.
Another problem is that no Muslim spokespersons who are recognized by all Muslims. A radical Muslim imam does not speak on behalf of liberal. Conversely, a liberal Muslim does not speak on behalf of all different Muslim. It is therefore confusing for journalists whom she behalf of the Muslim community to speak may be. After the death of the Prophet Muhammad were the Muslim leader disagree. The different interpretations of Islam that Muslims do not make clear to the outside steps. In exceptional cases it happens that someone among the Muslims to rise up to take the lead and if the interests of Muslims in the media to represent. It is in these cases almost always people with extreme ideas. Think of Osama bin Laden claimed the attention because he thanked Allah for the attacks on America.
However, the restructuring of the media probably solve this problem. European Muslims have little confidence in the objectivity of the media and are therefore less willing to speak. The daily reality is that their words are easily distorted or taken out of context are. If journalists have more knowledge of Muslims and trained in intercultural skills, they would thus be able to report objectively. This increases the chance that liberal Muslims speak out, so that Europeans no longer a one-sided image of Muslims through the media get.
How important it is to the Muslims to improve communication about the research shows Western Perception of Islam and Muslims (Communique Partners, 2005) under 1000 And U.S. 1400 Western European citizens, showing that half of the respondents express little or no knowledge of Islam and Muslims. Netherlands scored relatively best on this question, 'Only' 20 percent of respondents indicated that they have little or no knowledge of Islam and Muslims had. It is remarkable that the Dutch are the most negative about Islam and Muslims. As many as 40 percent of Dutch people had a bit to very negative image of Muslims, while the average 32 procent lag. The solution is therefore not have to communicate, but to communicate substantively nuanced.
Het vergroten van de invloed van moslimlanden in de wereldpolitiek
The media has an important influence factor that currently complicates the dialogue with Muslims. However, a restructuring of the media are not sufficient to Muslims with the call to go. It is envisaged that the restructuring of the media a more nuanced picture Europeans reached. Politically, the Muslim countries in the world but little to say against the dominant Western countries. Rightly live among Muslims a feeling of dissatisfaction with the role they play in world politics. If Muslim countries would get more participation and appreciation for democratic efforts, radicalization, this would take the wind out of sails.
Professor Bernard Lewis describes in the article "The Roots of Muslim Rage" his views on why some Muslims hate the West (Lewis, 1990). For centuries Islam has dominated world politics and the Muslim armies were unstoppable, but now there is little left of this flowering time. As I mentioned at the beginning of the article pointed out that it is often called Islam becoming a dominant power is becoming in Europe and America. At the same time remember that the Muslim countries invaded by Western ideas and influences. Western democracy is also implemented in Muslim countries and Coca Cola and McDonald's earn much money in Muslim countries. A century ago, Muslim countries transformed into democracies complete with its own constitution. To the Muslim reformers tried to take over the Western model, without them the principle behind the democratic model fully understood. The result was a Western-oriented political model that proved no match against the rapidly developing crises. In many Muslim countries led Western economic methods for poverty and Western political systems dictatorship. No wonder Muslims are willing to listen to voices that tell them that they must return to the old Islamic values, aldus Lewis.
Lewis cites the main reason for the growing radicalization that these Muslims are not able to set a world dominated by infidels. Islam is no longer the dominant religion and radical Muslims, it is blasphemous and unnatural that Muslims are threatened by the West. Lewis concludes that the West can do little or nothing to this development within Islam. He hopes only that the permissive and liberal movements in the course of time will prevail. Muslims must decide for themselves where they want, the smallest attempt from the West to influence may harm.
On this last point, my view differs from that of Lewis. I do believe that the West is not too much to want to steer as Islam evolves, but this does not mean we should remain passive. The U.S. and the European Union to keep Muslim countries out of world politics too. Recently, in the newspaper that NATO is seeking help from Muslim countries to the Afghan army to train. Such initiatives should in the future many more coming, for why Muslim countries are banned in major consulting? Why have only the greatest Western countries a permanent seat on the UN Security Council? Muslim countries are often become dependent on loans and development of the West, so that they have little impact on the world politics. A good example is Pakistan that its utmost to allow the U.S. to stay friends because otherwise they get no money. And if Pakistan is not cooperating cites the U.S. ties with India or to. It is not easy to eliminate this inequality, without certain sacrifices that the West. The extinguishment of debt may not be the best solution, but Europe, the Muslim countries more seriously and treat them to occupy a more prominent place on the world stage.
The poll by the Gallup Center Princeton apparent in studies in Muslim countries that Muslims demand that the West respect Islam and that it should not interfere with internal issues of Muslim countries (Gallup, 2006).
Het ondersteunen van liberale initiatieven onder moslims
Besides the above points, it is also important to liberal Muslims to support initiatives.
Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi of Malaysia called on other Muslim countries to modernize their society so that the discontent among Muslims that a breeding ground for radical Islam, can be removed. He asks the West to the Muslim countries to help because in its own interest. The struggle between the Western and Muslim world must be prevented. Malaysia is a good example of a Muslim country that the democratic system has been implemented. In most Muslim countries, there will be liberal initiatives of Muslim liberals. Thus, liberal parties in Europe, Muslim countries should support them to offer advice and information. It does not hurt as Europe's preference for a liberal party, while offering to advise. Also, the development can be partially replaced by giving money to certain projects.
Of course, Europe can not just go handing out money and advice. The RAND (Center for Middle East Public Policy) its report 'Building Moderate Muslim Networks "released (RAND, 2007). Here they mention several criteria to determine who earned the support of the West:
- There should be criteria that are still evolving and sharpened for real liberal Muslims of opportunists and extremists posing as moderates to separate. Liberal secularists from authoritarian secularists. The government must have the ability to make decisions because of situational tactical reasons in particular circumstances.
- There must be a global database to be built (individual-, groups, organizations, institutions, partijen etc..)
- Programs should be developed to monitor the projects to keep and make adjustments where necessary. These programs must be open to input from partners who have proved reliable.
According to RAND, the government should especially democratic education, media, gender equality and liberal political policy support. More recommendations can be found in the comprehensive report.
In addition, European countries, heads of state from Muslim countries to invite and ensure they are well received. Ik denk hierbij terug aan het bezoek van de Iraanse president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad aan de VS. He was treated disrespectfully and there was a fuss about the fact that he wanted to visit Ground Zero. Apart from the remarks when he has done, should seriously be reacted. Factual errors should be shown. In this way, Muslims themselves to draw conclusions from a state visit. Radical Muslims use such events as propaganda.
The radical movement within Islam attracts many followers. The message that radical Muslims are responding well to bring the discontent that prevails among many Muslims. Dissatisfaction with the subordinate position of Muslim countries in world politics, dissatisfaction with the dominant infidel West, dissatisfaction with the economic situation.
This development can not be countered by fear among the Western population seeding. This raises false and extremist views in the West. The vicious circle must be broken, because you will forget that most Muslims are moderate. It also leads to the liberalizing development that we go through Islam overlook.
Although Europe is the development of Islam can not send, this does not mean that Europe should not do anything. By communicating about Muslims and Islam to improve, we get a balanced picture which will decrease stress and anxiety responses. This leads to an improved atmosphere in which we facilitate the dialogue with Muslims can go to create a Clash of Civilizations to be avoided. The media have to be restructured. The reports about Muslims and Islam is often unilateral and a more intercultural dimension.
By Muslim countries to give more influence in world politics and to value them for their contribution, takes the discontent among Muslims about the powerlessness and lack of influence on. Perhaps this even the structure of international bodies like the United Nations change. Muslim countries should participate more in decisions about important issues and. In addition, liberal Europe initiatives in Muslim countries with financial support or advice.
Obviously, this improvement also opposed difficulties and serious challenges call. But if we expect this of Islam at a moderate way developed, that European attitudes toward Muslims and Islam change. Because what we sow, we will also reap.
Kader – Bloeitijd en verval van de islamitische beschaving
Just after the death of the Prophet Muhammad was the young Islamic empire divided among four caliphs. And despite the civil wars between this period (from 632 na Christus) the beginning of the Islamic era called bloom. In 634 Yemen was conquered, Damascus underwent 635 same fate and 636 Jerusalem also fell into the hands of the Muslims. In the following centuries the whole of North Africa conquered and pulled the Muslims in the east deep into Asia. In 711 were taken in Afghanistan and Pakistan 724 Uzbekistan was also present at the Islamic empire added. In 711 put the Muslim general Tariq ashore in Spain. France also, Sicily and Italy were threatened by the advancing armies. Counter-offensives in the form of crusades did not seem to benefit, but in retrospect they rang the damage to the Islamic empire. Around 1240 on Chr. Tatars had most of Russia and Eastern Europe conquered and this came under the authority of the Muslims to stand when Tatar Khan and his people converted to Islam. Only Iran was a serious threat to the Islamic empire, in volume, power and magnificence surpassed the Roman Empire. The trade flourished in Asia and from Europe and Africa, slaves were imported. This breakthrough of Islamic culture is attributed to the contact with the Muslim cultures had higher. The Greek civilization has left its mark in the Ottoman Empire failed. At the beginning of the 16and century, three great Muslim empires; the Ottomans, the Shiite Safavids in Iran and the Moghuls in India.
The Muslim superiority was maintained for centuries, but before the time of the Renaissance, Europeans had made a great catch. On some scientific, cultural and technological areas they were now for. In 1492 on Chr. Spain and Portugal fell into the hands of Christianity. In the Islamic empire they did not know what happened in the West. The Renaissance and Reformation took place, but were not observed. There were no Western books translated into Arabic, while in Europe, is already in the 16and and 17and century Arabic study were designed.
In the 18and century European governments opened consulates in Arab countries. Meanwhile, the yield of the Arab exports and became the Muslim army inflicted many defeats. In Christianity was under the Age of Enlightenment a revaluation of the Christian sources, writings and traditions place. Islam has never undergone such a lighting. An attempt to reinterpret the Koran by the Oelama (jurists of the Sharia) retained. Nevertheless, there are also new laws based on the Western laws introduced. The slave trade was abolished and only the family was based on Sharia. Europe increasingly flourished and expanded its borders through new lands to colonize. The Arab world lagged behind the industrial revolution by a lack of investment.
In the nineteenth century stagnant exports and revenues of the Arab countries. If the oil is not included, the World Bank estimates that by all Arab countries together exported less than in Finland. The average income of an Arab has no more than 2000 dollars per year, even if the oil is taken into account income. Between 1980 and 1999 were the nine Arab countries but 370 patents registered. In the same period recorded over South Korea 16.000 patents.
Kader – Koran, a message of peace or hate?
What does the Koran actually? Both the liberal and the radical current draw their inspiration from the Quran. Is the Koran is a book with a message of peace or the book encourages the commission of violence against unbelievers?
A ready answer to these questions is not. There are a lot of texts in the Koran which debunks infidels and dissenters made. But there are a lot of Muslims using the Koran to demonstrate that the book mainly preaches peace.
It should take into account several factors in the debate around the message of the Quran. First, there are often single verses from the Quran cited, but these can only be interpreted as evidence for a particular be used as the context clearly dictates is. In this way you will also verses from the Bible, for example, or the Criminal Code completely out of context can snatch.
In addition, it is very difficult to handle the Koran correctly to interpret. Learned Muslims that the Koran years studying, can lead to very different insights. In the Qur'an are much more varied interpretations than the Bible is the case. Christians are the core issues in much more agree, while the Quran in many more ways can be interpreted.
Often, for example, the concept of Jihad misunderstood. The Koran speaks of the "great Jihad", this is a struggle for the basic instincts such as greed, lust and violence to subdue. The fight with the sword is a 'lesser jihad'. According to many liberal Muslims, the Koran that war is only allowed as a defense against the injustice caused by an attack or occupation, oppression or religious persecution. Radical Muslims see the 'small jihad' as an important way to spread Islam and infidels fight. The vast majority of Muslims accept violence, but the question is whether attacks are seen as acts of violence that the Koran be banned, or if she acts in defense of Islam seen. This discussion is Sura 60:8-9 play an important role.
It is like the Egyptian philosopher Hassan Hanafi (born in 1935) wrote: "There is not an interpretation of the Koran. Each interpretation expresses the socio-political preference of the interpreter. "And Abdullah An-Na'im of Sudan (born in 1946): "There is no such thing as the only correct interpretation of the Koran, because every interpretation is influenced by individual and collective orientation of Muslims. "
Below the most important texts from the Koran (interpretations and translations from Arabic) which both groups are trying to demonstrate equal.
There is no compulsion in religion. Indeed, the correct path is distinct from error.(Koran 2:256)
And if thy Lord had willed, all the people on earth, have believed. Wilt thou then compel the people, believers to be? (Koran 10:99)
And argue with the People of the Book only in the right way; but say to the unjust: "We believe in what was revealed to us and that which is revealed; Our God and your God is One; and to Him we submit. " (Koran 29:46)
Fight in the cause of Allah against those, who fight against you, but do not transgress limits. Indeed, Allah does not love. (Koran 2:190)
Again the evil deed with something that is better. Then he, between whom and you was enmity, as a bosom friend.’ (Koran 41:34)
Who kills a man (unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land), true if he had slain all mankind. And for him, someone who gives birth, if he were to all mankind gave birth. (Koran 5:32)
(Pronouncing) kind words and forgiveness is better than charity followed by hurt. (Koran 2:263)
Allah forbids you not those who have not fought against you because of religion and that you have not driven them out of your homes, to treat with respect and fairness. But God forbids you to those who fought against you because of religion have, who expelled you from your homes and who you helped expulsion, assistance. And those who assist them are wrongdoers. (Koran 60:8-9)
If therefore ye have an encounter with those who disbelieve hews than in the necks. (Koran 47:4)
Let those, who now live for life in the Hereafter to sacrifice, for the Cause of Allah. And who is fighting for the cause of Allah, whether he is slain or gets victory, Soon shall We give him a great reward. (Koran 4:47)
When ye therefore, have an encounter with them, who disbelieve, hews than in the necks of them and when you've done a massacre, binds them in chains. (Koran 9:123)
Fight against those who believe not in God, or in the last day, nor forbid that which Allah and His Messenger (Mohammed) prohibited, and those who do not recognize the religion of truth among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) until they voluntarily pay the jizya, and let them feel that they are subject. (Koran 9:29)
And fight them until there is no persecution and the religion entirely for Allah. (Koran 8:39)
Liberalisation: development within Islam that is moderate and progressive. Islam is reformed to better reflect the modern ideas and world politics. The Koran is not anything more literal, but more applied on modern society. Secularization.
Radicalisation: development within Islam that wants to offer a counterbalance to the secularization and reform of Islam. Radical Muslims fall back on the basic rules of Islam and are willing to use force to counteract the secularization.
Secular: separation of church and state and try to assess the influence of church and religion to reduce.
- Lewis, B. (2007) "How the West the third wave of attacks on Europe and Christianity must be right", NRC Handelsblad, 6/5/2007: 15.
- List, G. van der (2005) "The Koran, a disturbing book ", Elsevier, 18/6/2005: 80.
- Muslim in Nederland (2004). The public debate about Islam in the Netherlands: An analysis of articles in the Times 1998-2002 (SCP Working Paper 106d). Report (pdf document). http://www.scp.nl/publicaties/boeken/9037701787/Moslim_in_Nederland-106d_Publieke_discussie_over_de_islam_in_Nederland.pdf (consulted on 05/06/2007)
- Kurzman, C. (1999) “Liberal Islam: Prospects and Challenges”, MEASURED, Flight. 3 (1999)3: 11-19.
- Muslims and Americans: The Way Forward (2006). (GallupWorldPoll special report). Report (pdf document). http://media.gallup.com/MuslimWestFacts/PDF/GALLUPMUSLIMSTUDIESIslamandWest2107FINALrev.pdf (consulted on 14/12/2007)
- Shadid, In. (2005) "Coverage of Muslims and Islam in the Western media: Imaging, causes and alternative strategies ", Journal of Communication Studies,Volume 33 (2005)4: 330-346
- Western Perception of Islam and Muslims (2005). A Study of Public Opinion and the Role of the Media in the United States and Western Europe (Communique Partners). Study/Report (pdf document). http://www.islamperceptions.org/WesternPerceptionofIslamandMuslims.pdf (consulted on 11/12/2007)
- Building Moderate Muslim Networks (2007). (RAND Center for Middle East Public Policy). Report (pdfdocement). http://rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG574.pdf (consulted on 12/11/2007)
- Lewis, B. (1990) “The Roots of Muslim Rage”, The Atlantic Monthly, Flight. 266, Not. 3 (1990): 47 – 60
- Islam and the Future of Europe, Expliciet Stores, 12 december 2005
- Is there room for Muslims in Europe?, Info-bulletin Gospel & Muslims, not. 87 december 2006
- Kramer, J.H. "The Koran, Arabic translation ", Second edition, October 2006, Publishing the Labor Press in Amsterdam
- http://www.hauns.com/ ~ DCQu4E5g/koran2.html
- http://www.interculturelecommunicatie.com / download / western% 20media% 20and% 20islam.pdf